Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Stakeholder Analysis of the Affordable Care Act - 778 Words

Stakeholder Analysis According to Roy, 2013 the issues of providing the affordable care act will unite both the supporters and offenders of the public policy, but in this current situation where the input costs are rising, it will become impossible for government in managing the public policy related to affordable health care. In order to provide affordable health care, majority of the US government has tried out different policies time to time, but unable to get success in realizing the actual policy goals. By providing the affordable health care to majority of the people who requires more amount as controlling the input cost is not possible (AAMC, 2013). Lack of doctors is one of the primary issue in providing high quality health care to†¦show more content†¦This can demand for some additional health cess to the taxpayers to some extent, the same cannot be added with the government health fund. In this case, government can also issue both interest free and tax free bonds to public for raising funds which will provide for tax saving to the taxpayers. In this case, there will be no interest burden on the government requirements for doubling the health insurance and the amount of compensation will be fixed by government are not sufficient for the holders of health insurance. It will be better if government is including all the citizens within the ambit of the general health insurance. Following is the plausibility graph. Analysing the stakeholders is actually useful in making prediction about both profit and losses that are associated with people with some particular policy. This analysis is a systematic process in which all information are gathered in a systematic manner and these information are qualitatively analyzed in order to determine as whose interest amount should be considered while developing the or in policy or program implementation. Similarly, the stakeholder’s analysis will yield for more accurate and useful information about the health care reforms. This information can also be used for providing the input for the analysis andShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Affordable Care Act963 Words   |  4 PagesAfter the inception of ACA that is Affordable Care Act on March 23, 2010 various policies and regulations has been proposed which has more controversy (www.healthcapital.com, 2013). Affordable health act has impact on the stakeholders in different manner. The main concern in the medical field is the input cost which is increasing continuously. This is the biggest challenge for the US government as the increasing cost makes it impossible for the government to allocate appropriate resources in managingRead MoreThe Affordable Care Act ( Aca ) Introduced By The Obama Administration Essay1326 Words   |  6 PagesStrategic Management for Health Care Introduction: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) introduced by the Obama administration is expected to provide health insurance benefits to approximately 30 million Americans. Nonetheless, coverage expansion is not synonymous with actual care expansion, and this dissimilarity is becoming much clearer. When the national health law was passed by Congress, it unleashed tsunami mayhem of insured new patients and a consequent flooding of a system of deliver that was alreadyRead MoreStakeholders Of The Healthcare And Their Communication Strategy912 Words   |  4 PagesStakeholders Analysis Health care stakeholders are individuals, groups, organizations or institutes that may affect or can be affected by the health-care providers in one way or another. Their effect on the healthcare depends on their views, interests, and contributions which differ from one stakeholder to the other. Therefore, this paper will dwell on analyzing about the stakeholders in the healthcare and their communication strategy. Some of the major stakeholders in Healthcare include; the publicRead MoreThe Cost Of Health Care1378 Words   |  6 PagesWhen you think about health care cost and what was done in the past to help people who could not afford it to be able to get coverage now. Many people will not be able to afford to get the mandatory coverage and if they do, they will not be able to afford to see the physician or take the medication that they needed. Some of the plans worked and others helped for short periods. With other countries, finding ways to make it work for them and stakeholders more worried in the U.S.A. over their assetsRead MoreStakeholder Identification And Prioritization Using A Case Study Of Stakeholder Management782 Words   |  4 PagesThe purpose of this paper is to examine stakeholder identification and prioritization using a case study of stakeholder management of business changes resulting from a federal mandated in Medicaid payment at Blue Cross Blue Shield Nebraska (BCBSNE). BCBSNE is a not-for-profit health insurance company that is focused on collaboration to find the best solution for their customers. Since the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), strategic management has played a key role in BCBSNE due toRead MoreThe Revolutionary Transformation Of The Healthcare Delivery System826 Words   |  4 PagesThe revolutionary transformation of the healthcare delivery system, sparked by The Affordable Care Act (2010) is changing the way nurses provide care, patients receive care, and hospitals profit from care (ANA, 2015). The goal s of The Affordable Care Act (2010) focus on expanding access to high quality, and cost effective healthcare (ANA, 2015). The emphasis on value-based healthcare, uses incentives and penalties based on the healthcare organization’s ability to meet quality outcomes and cost-cuttingRead MoreAffordable Care Act Of 2010 ( Aca )807 Words   |  4 PagesAffordable Care Act The Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) was designed to make medical insurance coverage affordable for all American citizens. Provisions were established to make certain uninsured individuals and no or low-income households can qualify for Medicaid or coverage through one of the health insurance marketplace exchange. North Carolina is viewed as an example of the impact the ACA would have on the nation. North Carolina is one of the states that chose not to expand Medicaid (HolmesRead MoreThe Cost Of Insurance Coverage1658 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"When we debate health care policy, we seem to jump right to the issue of who should pay the bills, blowing past what should be the first question: Why exactly are the bills so high? (Sultz Young 336)†. It’s no surprise for many Americas today to realize that the cost of healthcare and the cost of having insurance is on the rise. Many people wonder why something stressed as important for every individual to have access to, is so expensive and inaccessible for many. So, why is that something thatRead MoreStrategic Management At Blue Cross Blue Shield Nebraska ( Bcbsne )1282 Words   |  6 Pageshow (and why) managers might go about using stakeholder identification and analysis techniques to help their organizations meet their missions and create public value. Within the practice of strategic management in different public and nonprofit organizations, however, a range of stakeholder identification and analysis techniques are used. The purpose of this paper is to examine stakeholder identification and prioritization using a case study of stakeholder management of business changes resulting fromRead MoreLegal Factors Of An Urban Institute1683 Words   |  7 PagesLegal Factors An Urban Institute analysis found that if all states expanded Medicaid to individuals at or below 138% FPL, more than 15 million adults will be eligible to enroll (Kenney, Dubay, Zuckerman and Huntress, 2012). If a state failed to implement the expansion, it faced the possible loss of all federal Medicaid funding, making it an offer the states could not refuse. However, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Congress could not intimidate states into expanding Medicaid. As a result, the

What Is the Hardy-Weinberg Principle

Godfrey Hardy (1877-1947), an English mathematician, and Wilhelm Weinberg (1862-1937), a German physician, both found a way to link genetic probability and evolution in the early 20th century. Hardy and Weinberg independently worked on finding a mathematical equation to explain the link between genetic equilibrium and evolution in a population of species. In fact, Weinberg was the first of the two men to publish and lecture on his ideas of genetic equilibrium in 1908. He presented his findings to the Society for the Natural History of the Fatherland in WÃ ¼rttemberg, Germany in January of that year. Hardys work wasnt published until six months after that, but he received all of the recognition because he published in the English language while Weinbergs was only available in German. It took 35 years before Weinbergs contributions were recognized. Even today, some English texts only refer to the idea as Hardys Law, totally discounting the work of Weinberg. Hardy and Weinberg and Microevolution Charles Darwins Theory of Evolution touched briefly on favorable characteristics being passed down from parents to offspring, but the actual mechanism for that was flawed. Gregor Mendel did not publish his work until after Darwins death. Both Hardy and Weinberg understood that natural selection occurred because of small changes ​within the genes of the species. The focus of Hardys and Weinbergs works was on very small changes at a gene level either due to chance or other circumstances that changed the gene pool of the population. The frequency at which certain alleles appeared changed over generations. This change in frequency of the alleles was the driving force behind evolution at a molecular level, or microevolution. Since Hardy was a very gifted mathematician, he wanted to find an equation that would predict allele frequency in populations so he could find the probability of evolution occurring over a number of generations. Weinberg also independently worked toward the same solution.The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Equation used the frequency of alleles to predict genotypes and track them over generations. The Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Equation p2 2pq q2 1 (p the frequency or percentage of the dominant allele in decimal format, q the frequency or percentage of the recessive allele in decimal format) Since p is the frequency of all dominant alleles (A), it counts all of the homozygous dominant individuals (AA) and half of the heterozygous individuals (Aa). Likewise, since q is the frequency of all recessive alleles (a), it counts all of the homozygous recessive individuals (aa) and half of the heterozygous individuals (Aa). Therefore, p2 stands for all homozygous dominant individuals, q2 stands for all homozygous recessive individuals, and 2pq is all heterozygous individuals in a population. Everything is set equal to 1 because all individuals in a population equals 100 percent. This equation can accurately determine whether or not evolution has occurred between generations and in which direction the population is heading. In order for this equation to work, it is assumed that all of the following conditions are not met at the same time: Mutation at a DNA level is not occurring.Natural selection is not occurring.The population is infinitely large.All members of the population are able to breed and do breed.All mating is totally random.All individuals produce the same number of offspring.There is no emigration or immigration occurring. The list above describes causes of evolution. If all of these conditions are met at the same time, then there is no evolution occurring in a population. Since the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Equation is used to predict evolution, a mechanism for evolution must be happening.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The European Union A Controversial Issue - 2459 Words

Since 1973 when the British first joined the European Union their membership has been a controversial issue. When conservatives in the United Kingdom won the general election in 2015, their election manifesto promised to hold a referendum on whether or not the United Kingdom should stay or leave the European Union. The referendum also referred to as â€Å"Brexit† is scheduled to take place by the end of 2017. The United Kingdom initially joined the union to be part of the common market for the purpose of trade and to develop international relationships. The main argument for those who are pro Brexit is that being part of the European Union is too costly for the United Kingdom, that the EU has grown to large, has interfered to far into†¦show more content†¦The EU has its own currency called the euro which 19 of the 28 European states use. It is run by members of the European parliament, these members set rules that cover a wide range of areas such as rules on transpor t and business. Once a state becomes a member of the European Union they have a right to withdraw from the Union under the Treaty on the European Union. Article 50 in the Treaty on European Union states, â€Å"Any Member State may decide to withdraw from the Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. If the United Kingdom votes to leave the Union, they would be the first state to ever withdraw their membership. The United Kingdom initially joined the European Union in 1973 for economic reasons hoping to promote trade and form relationships with other states in the Union. In 1975 the UK held its first national referendum on withdrawal from the European Economic Community. According to the poll,† 67 % of Britons voted to stay in the EEC and 32 % voted to leave the union† (GYE). Because of this result the UK stayed in the EU in 1975. Over the past 40 years the European Union has been through a lot of change, many more countries have joined the organizati on and the EU has extended its control over more aspects of daily lives. These changes have sparked a lot of controversy coming from both the UK public and

Symptoms And Treatment Of A Cerebral Vascular Attack

Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability in the world and is increasingly causing more stress and burden on patients and families. After the acute stages of a cerebral vascular attack (CVA) or stroke, patients begin to realize their deficits which may sometimes leave them confused and afraid to go into the community. Rehabilitation is a key focus in recovery to help victims restore their physical function to their maximum potential, as well as develop their psychosocial confidence to be able to integrate into society with a disability. Patients can have an improved recovery from stroke by participating in rehabilitation services in the community and using their support system once discharged from the acute care setting. In this paper, it will be demonstrated that caregivers of stroke patients tend to influence recovery differently. Also, stroke survivors must integrate within their community to continue positive rehabilitation because stroke survivors need a stable environme nt to flourish in recovery. Discussion Greenwood, Mackenzie, Cloud, Wilson, (2008) explains that nurses that communicate to the patient and their families to assist with treatment and rehabilitation seem to aid in the prevention of future reoccurrence of stroke. Communication and care are essential in the treatment courses post stroke. In the continuum of care for stroke survivors, an Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) can help with coordinating care for the clinically complex neurological andShow MoreRelatedA Study On A Cerebral Vascular Accident1464 Words   |  6 PagesA cerebral vascular incident can happen to anyone at anytime. Some people know it be called a stroke, CVA, or brain attack. The majority of patients who have had a stoke will have another one within one year. Stoke tend to occur more often in the southern United States also known as the â€Å"stroke belt†. This may be related to the larger number of elderly, tobacco use, and obesity. A cerebral vascular accident ranks high in the major leading c auses of death in the United States, and it happensRead MoreA Look At Non Alzheimer s Disease1684 Words   |  7 PagesA Look At Non-Alzheimer’s Disease Dementias By Katie Bergstrom, PA-S ABSTRACT: The most common tendency in assessing patients who display signs of dementia is to evaluate them for Alzheimer’s Disease. This means that Vascular Dementia, Dementia with Lewy Bodies, and Parkinson’s Disease Dementia are conversely overlooked as possible diagnoses. Special attention to clinical presentation and the use of diagnostic tests (such as the MRI) and assessment scales (like the Mini Mental State Exam) aid inRead MoreStroke935 Words   |  4 PagesStroke Definition: A stroke is the sudden death of the cells in a specific area of the brain caused by inadequate blood flow. Another name for it is cerebral vascular accident (CVA). A stroke is also called a brain attack. Description: A stroke occurs when an artery bursts or becomes closed when a blood clot lodges in it and blood flow is interrupted to that part of the brain. Blood circulating to that area of the brain served by the artery stops at the point of rupture, and the brain tissueRead MoreCauses And Symptoms Of Cerebral Vascular Accidents1109 Words   |  5 PagesCerebral vascular accidents are also known as strokes. Strokes can cause minimal to severe brain damage which can affect a person’s quality of life. This paper covers the definition, signs and symptoms, treatments, causes, prevention and what a nursing assistant can do to help someone recovering from a stroke. Definition: According to our American Red Cross Nursing Assistant text a cerebral vascular accident, C.V.A., or stroke occurs when blood ï ¬â€šow to a part of the brain is interrupted. The lossRead MoreCva Ischemic Stoke1522 Words   |  7 Pagescategories: Ischemic (85%) in which vascular occlusion and significant hypoperfusion occur and hemorrhage (15%), in which there is extravasation of blood into the brain or subarachnoid space. THROMBOSIS Types of CVA Strokes can be classified into two major categories: Ischemic and Hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes are those that are caused by interruption of the blood supply, while Hemorrhagic strokes are the ones which result from rupture of a  blood vessel  or an abnormal vascular structure. * IschemicRead MoreUnit 4 Capstone Project : Cerebral Vascular Accident960 Words   |  4 PagesUnit 4 Capstone project: Cerebral Vascular Accident Jenni Urbas Kaplan University Cerebral vascular Accident (CVA) is the medical term for a stroke. A stroke happens when blood supply to a part of your brain is suddenly cut off or extremely lowered. When this happens, the tissue of the brain gets deprived of food and air. The brain cells start to die within minutes. Having a stroke is an emergency and seeking treatment as soon as possible is crucial to surviving. The sooner you takeRead MoreObstructive Sleep Apnea ( Osa )1199 Words   |  5 Pageswith cerebral neural injury, and that may result in both mood dysregulation[6] and cognitive decline.[7] It remains to be established which neurocognitive domains that are affected by OSA. In patients with OSA, autoregulation is impaired, and that results in hypoperfusion to the brain tissue,[8, 9] particularly in the regions with poor collateral circulation (e.g., such as the terminal small arterial territories).[10] Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion may lead to the development of cerebral smallRead MoreSymptoms And Treatments Of A Stroke1286 Words   |  6 Pagescompromised life after. So what is a stroke? A stroke also known as Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) happens when there is a loss of blood supply to the brain. In the following we will be looking at the history of the disease, suspected causes, symptoms and treatments. Before we go into the history of a stroke take some time to look at the population chart in the back (pg. 8 image. 1) to see where strokes occur most. As you can see, the chart shows statistics of where strokes occur most and least aroundRead MoreOne Beat At a Time Essay1318 Words   |  6 PagesOne Beat at a Time When we think of cardio vascular diseases, we usually always associate them with the loss of a family member or friend. Almost everyone knows of someone who is affected by these tragic diseases. Since the ancient times, there have been clues left showing possible cardio vascular diseases within the Egyptian families. The earliest proof of a cardio vascular disease is of a 3,500 year old Egyptian mummy with a serious case of arthrosclerosis, which was identified via modern CTRead MoreTypes Of Stroke Ischemic Stroke And Ischemic Attack1271 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Stroke also known as cerebral vascular accident (CVA) is a medical emergency, responsible for a large amount of death in United States. Stroke is classified as the fourth leading cause of the death in the United States. There are three different types of stroke ischemic stroke,uv hemorrhagic stroke and transient ischemic attack. Strokes compare to any other diseases is one of the most common cause of adult disability in the United States. Learning about stroke can help you to act fast

Critical Analysis Of Prioritizing Problems In Nursing †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Critical Analysis Of Prioritizing Problems In Nursing. Answer: This essay demonstrates the critical analysis of the treatment provided to a patient, suffering from flash acute pulmonary oedema. In this disorder, fluids are accumulated in the lungs and leads to impaired gas exchange, hypoxaemia and kidney failure as well (Force, 2012). While treating a patient with such disorder, the priority should be restoring the gas exchange as imbalance in the gas exchange can lead to a severe condition of hypoxaemia leading to tissue failures (Purvey Allen, 2017). The provided case study mentions that the patient has decreased breath rates. The x-ray report also points out accumulated fluids in both the lungs. The patient is unable to talk and has increased pulse rates. The other symptoms such as dyspnea cracked breathing sounds and central cyanosis as well. Therefore, the first priority should be treating the impaired gas exchange in the patient. Without restoring the adequate gas exchange, the blood being returned to the circulation, will carry limited oxygen back to the tissues, leading to tissue failure (Purvey Allen, 2017). At first interventions need to be used to reduce the amount of fluid from the alveoli. Then a basic care plan to promote chest expansion and to reduce intrapulmonary shunting of blood. However, if these interventions does not work on the patient, the second priority should be reduce the hypoxemic condition. This condition is more problematic as due to lack of oxygen in the blood cells become hypoxic leading to hypoxaemia. Hypoxaemic condition leads to anaerobic metabolism and leads to mass damage of tissues, which can result as life threatening diseases such as cardiac arrest (Prabhakar Semenza, 2012). Lactate, which is secreted during anaerobic metabolism, induces osmotic loads and acidosis. Cell death occurs, as the ATP produced in the cell cannot complete the demand of cells. Therefore, this should be the second priority while treating such patient. Interventions need to be followed to restore the adequate circulation of oxygenated blood to prevent necrosis. References Force, A. D. T. (2012). Acute respiratory distress syndrome.Jama,307(23), 2526-2533. Prabhakar, N. R., Semenza, G. L. (2012). Adaptive and maladaptive cardiorespiratory responses to continuous and intermittent hypoxia mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors 1 and 2.Physiological reviews,92(3), 967-1003. Purvey, M., Allen, G. (2017). Managing acute pulmonary oedema.Australian prescriber,40(2), 59.

In this play, there are three main girls in Billy Fishers life Essay Example For Students

In this play, there are three main girls in Billy Fishers life Essay In this play, there are three main girls in Billy Fishers life. Barbara, who is the old fashioned type who believes in a perfect future with two children and a lovely cottage in Devon, Rita, who is a loud mouthed girl with a sluttish appearance and Liz, who can never rest in one place but is very similar to Billy in her thinking. We are led to believe by the writer that Barbara is a very slow thinker. There are quite a few points in the play where we see this but I think the most obvious one is when Rita comes into the Fisher household and starts shouting about what she and Billy have been doing down at Foley Bottoms. Even though it is plainly obvious what she is talking about, Barbara still says to Billy Billy, have you been having relations with this girl? . This is emphasized even more when the stage directions say; finding the right words at last. We are also shown that Barbara is afraid of physical contact, especially from Billy. She is very old fashioned with her morals about sex and marriage. She thinks it very indecent of Billy to be anywhere near her. This is shown when Billy says to Barbara; I love you darling, and the stage directions taking her in his arms and Barbaras answer I love you, and the stage directions moving away. This stage direction is very precise and helps to get a clearer picture of what is happening in the scene and also adds to the impression that we get of Barbaras character. We are encouraged to think that Barbara is very dreamy and is always thinking about the perfect future for herself and Billy. She talks about little Billy and little Barbara and even has in her mind what the curtains in her imaginary home are going to be made out of. She says to Billy, Oh, Ive seen the most marvellous material to make curtains for the living room. Honestly, youll love it. Its a sort of turquoise with lovely little squiggles like wine glasses. Barbara respects the family unit and does her best to fit in and not cause to much disturbance within the Fisher household. She tries to help Mrs Fisher when Florence has one of her dos. She says, even though the proposal is a little bit stupid considering what is happening, Would she like an orange, Mrs Fisher? . She also insists on helping Mrs Fisher in washing up the pots. She has the most respect for the family out of the three girls but then again I think she feels the most comfortable in a family environment. She is portrayed as being very quiet. In the whole of act 2 she says little to Rita even though she is shouting lots of things at her fiancÃÆ'Â ©e and at her which are hurtful. There is one part where Rita says to Barbara Oooh Billy will you kindly tell me? Aw, go take a long walk on a short pier, you squint eyed sow, youre nothing else. And Barbara just stands there and says nothing. Barbara is also shown to be a perfectionist by the writer. She has a perfect future planned for herself and Billy. She is very blinkered and cannot see that the world is different from what she thinks. She has it planned right down to the last detail. She even knows what material she will be using to make the curtains in the living room, and says to Billy; Oh, Ive seen the most marvellous material to make curtains for the living room. Honestly youll love it. Its a sort of turquoise with lovely little squiggles like wine glasses Barbara is the kind of person whose idea of a perfect future involves her with her husband and the children in a little cottage in Devon. She wants the children to be called little Billy and little Barbara. Cause and Effect in My Life EssayBilly tells Liz about the little country he imagines and Liz says, Do you do that? I knew you would. Why are we so alike, Billy? I can read your thoughts. This shows the similarity between them. Liz is written as a person who does not like to be tied down to one place for too long as she is always travelling around the country. Her character comes across as a very strong personality and a free spirit. She likes the uncommitted aspect of her life. This is emphasised when she says, Its this town. Its the people we know. I dont like knowing everybody or becoming a part of things. She is shown by the writers to be very impulsive. When she is talking to Billy she takes the opportunity to persuade him to go to London as soon as it arises. She is also a very persuasive person with the way she makes Billy say he will go to London with her. This is shown when she says, Thats a bit vague. Soon. Why not now? We are made to believe by the writers that Liz doe s not think about what the consequences will be if she goes to London with Billy. She does not care that Billys Grandma has just died and what he might be feeling like. She is slightly insensitive. When she is persuading Billy to come with her to London she does not once ask him whether he is feeling fine with that and if he really does want to go. This is shown when she says But we can, Billy! We can! What is there to stop us? Throughout the play we are told that Liz is a very scruffy person but when we actually reach the part where she is in the play, the description of her is quite different from what we have been told. It says that she is wearing the infamous skirt that we have heard so much about but it is not as dirty as we had been led to believe. This makes us think that the impression that we have got of Liz from others is somewhat different and this suggests that they maybe do not like her very much and so are twisting the truth to let us think that she is not a very nice person. When Billy talks about something Liz doesnt want to talk about she changes the subject. This is shown when her and Billy are talking about the letters she writes to Billy and rips up. She says, Hows Everything with you? Hows the script-writing? Hows the book coming along? and the stage directions changing the subject. This shows that she does not like talking about things that she has done and is almost embarrassed by them. If I was asked which girl I would think Billy would be more likely go with I think I would have to say Barbara because she is the one that forgives him when he lies and is easier to please than Rita. Although Liz has got qualities, like having a lot in common with him, she cannot be depended on a great deal because she is always moving around, and Rita is very demanding of Billy and I dont think she would forgive him if he lied. Barbara offers Billy the most security out of all of them and this is why I think he will pick Barbara.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

The development of twentieth

Walter notes: â€Å"In the twentieth century, the music industry underwent a revolution and it brought with it new freedom and wide experimentation. Although there was an emergence of new musical styles and forms which challenged the normal and accepted rules that applied during the earlier periods.† [1] However, there are many composers who continued to work in forms and in a musical language that originated from the nineteenth century. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The development of twentieth-century music: Schoenberg Vs. Stravinsky specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nonetheless, modernism became increasingly outstanding and important with composers experimenting with form, tonality and orchestration. These composers are such as Rachmaninoff, Edward Elgar, Claude Debussy and post-Wagnerian composers such as Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler. A few of the other composers such as Busoni, Schreker, Igor S travinsky and Arnold Schoenberg had already been recognized as modernists even before 1914. All of these composers offered major contributions in the development of music during the 20th century in their own exceptional ways. This paper deals with two of the most significant and vital figures in this development and the roles they played. Arnold Schoenberg and Igor Stravinsky were two of the most noteworthy composers during the twentieth century, both with different but equally notable roles to the progress of the music industry. Arnold Schoenberg, an Austrian but later became an American composer, was born on 13th September 1874 in the Leopoldstadt district, Vienna in a lower middle class Jewish family. Walter notes â€Å"Schoenberg was linked to the expressionist movement in German poetry and art and he was also a leader of the Second Viennese School.† [2] Schoenberg’s major milestone in the musical scene of the 20th century was his approach in terms of harmony and d evelopment. His approach and thoughts on music have been consciously extended by at least three generations both in the American and European traditions. In some instances, it has also been passionately reacted against such as during the rise of the Nazi party in Austria when his music was labeled as degenerate art. Schoenberg’s name was used as a personification of what turned out to be most polemical aspect of the 20th century art music, advancement in atonality. During the 1920’s, Schoenberg came up with the twelve-tone technique. This is a method of manipulating an ordered series of the twelve notes that are found in the chromatic scale which is has proved to be significant to a great extent. In addition to coming up with the term â€Å"developing variation†, he was also the first modern composer to acknowledge an approach of developing motifs without considering the idea of the supremacy of a centralized melodic idea.[3]Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Heinz notes â€Å"apart from him being a painter, a prominent teacher of composition as well as a significant music theorist, Schoenberg taught a number of well-known musicians such as Alban Berg, Anton Webern, Hanns Eisler, John Cage, Lou Harrison, Earl Kim and many others.†[4] Many of his practices such as openly engaging audiences to think critically and crafting the compositional method in a formal way are replicated in advanced musical structures throughout the 20th century. Schoenberg’s past life, visualizations and his views on music which was regularly polemical were crucial to a lot of the major musicologists and opponents of the 20th century era. However, at the age of 42, he found himself enlisted into the army with the instigation of World War 1. His involvement in Military service brought a crisis in his development as it disrupted his life. As a result , Schoenberg was never able to do his work without interruptions or for a long period of time, therefore leaving a lot of unfinished work and some in their initial stages but were yet to be developed. In spite of Arnold Schoenberg being a significant composer of the 20th century, I consider Igor Stravinsky to be more prominent of the two. Stravinsky is renowned as one of the pioneering, ingenious and high-profiled composers of the twentieth century music. He is originally from Russia and was born in 1882 in Lomonosov (originally named Oranienbaum) into a musical family. However he later became a citizen of France and eventually The United States. Despite Stravinsky’s father being an operatic bass player, his parents did not support him and wanted him to practice law. His personal interest however was more concentrated on the musical element and by the time his father passed away in 1902, he was already focusing lesser on his law classes and spending more of his time on his m usical studies. During his university years, he made the acquaintance of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov who was a leading Russian composer at that time. He decided to become a composer at age 20 and therefore Rimsky-Korsakov who also became like a second father to him, took him under his private tutelage from 1902 – 1908. In 1909, his piece Feu d’artifice (Fireworks) was heard by Sergei Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris during a performance in Saint Petersburg. Diaghilev was satisfactorily impressed and he therefore hired Stravinsky to carry out some orchestrations and as a result he wrote the first ballet for the theater which he named The Firebird. Afterward this was rapidly followed by Petrushka and the Rite of Spring.[5] During his career, which spanned through six decades he composed an impressive succession of works of astounding diversity. There were the vibrantly colorful Russian ballets of the early stages, the sharp wit and purity depicted in his neo-classical compositions and the prevailing spirituality seen in works such as the Symphony of Psalms. In his later works, one could also recognize the highly individual application of serialism. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The development of twentieth-century music: Schoenberg Vs. Stravinsky specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More â€Å"Stravinsky’s career-life can be categorized into 3 stylistic periods: The first period is the Russian Period, which began with Feu d’artifice and attained reputation with the three ballets that were composed for Diaghilev.† These ballets are L’oiseau de feu, Petrushka and Le Sacre du Printemps, which was among the most legendary classical music revolution. The works of this period were largely influenced by Rimsky-Korsakov’s imaginative scoring and use of instruments and mainly employed Russian folk themes and motifs. The second period whi ch is known as the Neo-classical period began from around 1920 when he implemented a musical idiom that was comparable to that of the classical period up till 1954 when he adjusted to twelve-tone serialism. Stravinsky’s earlier masterpieces, which highlighted his re-evaluation of Mozart’s and Bach’s conventional songs, were â€Å"Pulcinella† and â€Å"The Octet†. For this style, he took up wind instruments and disposed of the large orchestras that were frequently required for ballet. The last neo-classical work was the opera, The Rake’s Progress in 1951 that was based on the designs of Hogarth. From 1954 to 1968, there was the third period which was also known as the serial period. This is when Stravinsky started using successive compositional techniques that included the twelve-tone technique that was initially invented by Arnold Schoenberg along with dodecaphony. He used the twelve-tone technique in compositions such as Memoriam Dylan Th omas, Agon and Canticum Sacrum. He also expanded his use of dodecaphony in Threni, A Sermon, a narrative and a prayer and in The Flood all founded on biblical content. Stravinsky is considered an authority in 20th century music and has had considerable influence on composers of all times in all divisions of music. â€Å"In his use of motivic development, which refers to the use of musical figures used in a composition, Stravinsky used additive motivic development where he added and subtracted notes without regard to the consequent change in meters.† [6] He was also famous for using a distinct rhythm especially in The Rite of Spring, which later influenced composer Aaron Copland to a great extent. According to Andrew J. Browne, â€Å"Stravinsky is perhaps the only composer who has raised rhythm in itself to the dignity of art.† Stravinsky’s use of neo-classicism led to a widespread use of this style by composers in the late 1920’s and 1930’s. In ad dition, he used folk material and often exposed folk themes to their most melodic summaries using techniques such inversion and diminution to contort them. In orchestration, Stravinsky’s ‘The Rite of Spring’ has been discerned as the leading orchestral achievement in the 20th century. He also wrote for unique blends of instruments set up in smaller groups. Besides, he is well known for periodically utilizing extreme arrays of instruments.[7]Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As evidently observed, apart from his technical innovations in harmony and rhythm, one can detect the varying faces of his compositional technique but with a preservation of a distinct individuality, which was also very significant. Stravinsky got his inspiration from different cultures, languages and literatures and therefore the influence he had on composers during his lifetime and even after his death is still remarkable. Bibliography Copland, A Music and Imagination. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1952. Stuckenschmidt, H Schoenberg: his life, world, and work. Schirmer Books, New York, 1978. White, E Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.). University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1979. E W White. Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.). Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1979, p. 141 E W White, Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.), Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1979, p. 155 E W W hite, Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.), Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1979, p. 256 H stuckenschmindt, Schoenberg: his life, world, and work, New York, Schirmer Books, 1978, p. 15 A Copland, Music and Imagination, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1952, p. 531. W E Walter, Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.), Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1979, p. 54. H Stuckenschmindt, Schoenberg: his life, world, and work, New York, Schirmer Books, 1978, p. 124 This essay on The development of twentieth-century music: Schoenberg Vs. Stravinsky was written and submitted by user Paityn George to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.